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You might not need to take more than one version of the exam if you do well enough on your first try. However many versions you take, we hope that all of the exams will provide additional learning experiences.Duke University has about 13,000 undergraduate and graduate students and a world-class faculty helping to expand the frontiers of knowledge.CONTENT: Now we will describe another common set of fallacies: fallacies that occur when an argument makes no progress from its premises to its conclusion.
When you know how to identify such fallacies, you will find that they are more common than you think!
LEARNING OUTCOMES: By the end of this section you will be able to: identify various kinds of circularity or vacuity where they occur OPTIONAL READING: If you want more examples or more detailed discussions of these topics, we recommend Understanding Arguments, Ninth Edition, Chapter 16.
In the series as a whole, you learn how to analyze and evaluate arguments and how to avoid common mistakes in reasoning.
These important skills will be useful to you in deciding what to believe and what to do in all areas of your life. Politicians, salespeople, and children commonly use fallacies in order to get us to think what they want us to think.
LEARNING OUTCOMES : By the end of this week's material you will be able to: define what a fallacy is distinguish various kinds of fallacies understand the linguistic phenomena that give rise to fallacies identify various kinds of slippery slop fallacies where they occur identify various kinds of fallacies of equivocation where they occur OPTIONAL READING: If you want more examples or more detailed discussions of the fallacies that result from vaguness or ambiguity, we recommend Understanding Arguments, Ninth Edition, Chapters 13-14.
CONTENT: This week describes two of the most common fallacies that people make: ad hominem fallacies and appeals to authority.
This course is the fourth in a series of four courses jointly titled Think Again: How to Reason and Argue.
We are excited that you are taking this course, and we hope that you will take all four courses in the series, because there is a great deal of important material to learn.
We hope that the practice that you get in this week will help you to improve your skills at distinguish the fallacious from the non-fallacious instances of ad hominem reasoning, as well as appeal to authority.
LEARNING OUTCOMES: By the end of this section you will be able to: determine whether an ad hominem argument is a fallacy determine whether an appeal to authority is a fallacy OPTIONAL READING: If you want more examples or more detailed discussions of these topics, we recommend Understanding Arguments, Ninth Edition, Chapter 15.