For most of the twentieth century, the vast majority of English language philosophy—including philosophy of religion—went on without much interaction with theology at all.While there are a number of complex reasons for this divorce, three are especially important.According to the Thomistic model, philosophy and theology are distinct enterprises, differing primarily in their intellectual starting points.
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These data can be accepted on the basis of the reliability of our natural faculties with respect to the natural world.
Theology, on the other hand takes as its starting point the divine revelations contained in the Bible.
Thus, the legitimacy of philosophy was derived from the legitimacy of the underlying faith commitments.
Into the High Middle Ages, Augustine's views were widely defended. Thomas Aquinas offered yet another model for the relationship between philosophy and theology.
Since this way of thinking about philosophy and theology sharply demarcates the disciplines, it is possible in principle that the conclusions reached by one might be contradicted by the other.
According to advocates of this model, however, any such conflict must be merely apparent.
The former belief (i.e., that theological language was meaningless) was inspired by a tenet of logical positivism, according to which any statement that lacks empirical content is meaningless.
Since much theological language, for example, language describing the doctrine of the Trinity, lacks empirical content, such language must be meaningless.