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During Pleistocene times it was occupied at times by a body of water known as Lake Karewa; it is now filled by lacustrine (still water) sediments as well as alluvium deposited by the upper Jhelum River. The climate is characterized by annual precipitation of about 30 inches (750 mm), derived partially from the summer monsoon and partially from storms associated with winter low-pressure systems. Temperatures vary considerably by elevation; at Srinagar the average minimum temperature is in the upper 20s F (about −2 °C) in January, and the average maximum is in the upper 80s F (about 31 °C) in July.
There are many species of game birds, including vast numbers of migratory ducks.
INTRODUCTION: The Kashmir dispute is the oldest unresolved international conflict in the world today.
The climate varies from alpine in the northeast to subtropical in the southwest.
In the alpine area, average annual precipitation is about 3 inches (75 mm), but in the subtropical zone (around Jammu) rainfall amounts to about 45 inches (1,150 mm) per year.
From 7,000 to 10,500 feet (3,200 metres), coniferous forests with fir, pine, and spruce are found.
From 10,500 to 12,000 feet (3,700 metres), birch is dominant, and above 12,000 feet there are meadows with rhododendrons and dwarf willows as well as honeysuckle.
Himalayas, rising from about 2,000 to 7,000 feet (600 to 2,100 metres), form outer and inner zones.
The outer zone consists of sandstones, clays, silts, and conglomerates, influenced by Himalayan folding movements and eroded to form long ridges and valleys called s.
Precipitation increases with elevation, and the lower scrubland gives way to pine forests higher up.
The Pir Panjal Range constitutes the first (southernmost) mountain rampart associated with the Himalayas in the state and is the westernmost of the Lesser Himalayas.