Essay On Sustainable Food Systems For Food Security And Nutrition

Essay On Sustainable Food Systems For Food Security And Nutrition-20
After 1980, growth in expansion of irrigated area decreased and it is assumed this trend will continue in the near future.One of the reasons is that the areas most suitable for irrigation are already used, leading to higher construction costs in new areas.One of the major options for significantly raising crop production is increasing the use of mineral fertilisers.

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The availability of food within a specific country can be guaranteed in two ways: either by food production in the country itself or by trade.

Increase in productivity can come about by using innovative soil and moisture conservation techniques, e.g., the double plantation techniques adopted by farmers in the Mekong plains of Indo- China and the elaborate terraces and irrigation systems of Bali and South China.

This is seen as a long-term solution to the high prices of agriculture commodities and increasing demand for Agroforestry products such as palm oil.

Among the most active countries owning, leasing or concessioning farmland overseas are China, India, Japan, Saudi Arabia, South Korea and United Arab Emirates.

Food production in this region is lagging behind due to limited research investments and the problems for farmers to use the appropriate inputs in their production process.

The world regions are sharply divided in terms of their capacity to use science in promoting agricultural productivity in order to achieve food security and reduce poverty and hunger.Increasing crop canopy coverage reduces evapotranspiration from the soil, improving soil moisture and the provision of water for the crop.This option has become more and more important with increasing transport possibilities and storing capacities and the growing challenges faced by some countries in their domestic production, including because of limitations in available cropland.Current irrigation systems could be improved by investing in water control and delivery, automation, monitoring and staff training.In most African regions, the major challenge is not the lack of water, but unpredictable and highly variable rainfall patterns with occurrences of dry spells every two years causing crop failure.Another perspective of trade is the purchase of land abroad for food production.Responding to recent food crises, a number of countries have started to purchase land abroad for cultivation of – crops needed to support domestic demand.International trade in agricultural products has expanded more rapidly than global agricultural GDP.An increasing share of global agricultural exports originates from developed countries. With lack of irrigation water, infrastructure and investments, and low availability of micro-finance combined with dependency on few multinational suppliers, crop production is unlikely to increase in those regions where it is needed the most, unless major policy changes and investments take place. Stability of supply, without seasonal fluctuations or shortages; ii. Large shares of the world’s small-scale farmers, particularly in central Asia and in Africa, are constrained by access to markets, while inputs, such as fertilisers and seed, are expensive.

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