An unknown number of lower-income migrants remain abroad. For most of the nation's history the official language has been French.
However, the language spoken by the vast majority of the people is kreyol, whose pronunciation and vocabulary are derived largely from French but whose syntax is similar to that of other creoles.
Haiti, a name that means "mountainous country," is derived from the language of the Taino Indians who inhabited the island before European colonization.
After independence in 1804, the name was adopted by the military generals, many of them former slaves, who expelled the French and took possession of the colony then known as Saint Domingue.
Three-quarters of the terrain is mountainous; the highest peak is the Morne de Selle. The mountains are calcareous rather than volcanic and give way to widely varying microclimatic and soil conditions.
Essay On Voodoo In Haiti
A tectonic fault line runs through the country, causing occasional and sometimes devastating earthquakes.In the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, France forced Spain to cede the western third of Hispaniola.This area became the French colony of Saint Domingue.It is located in the subtropics on the western third of Hispaniola, the second largest island in the Caribbean, which it shares with the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic.The neighboring islands include Cuba, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico.An estimated 5–10 percent of the population speaks fluent French, but in recent decades massive emigration to the United States and the availability of cable television from the United States have helped English replace French as the second language in many sectors of the population. Residents attach tremendous importance to the expulsion of the French in 1804, an event that made Haiti the first independently black-ruled nation in the world, and only the second country in the Western Hemisphere to achieve independence from imperial Europe.The most noted national symbols are the flag, Henri Christophe's citadel and the statue of the "unknown maroon" ( Maroon inconnu ), a bare-chested revolutionary Emergence of a Nation.An early eighteenth century kingdom ruled by Henri Christophe prospered and thrived in the north, and from 1822 to 1844 Haiti ruled the entire island. marines began a nineteen year occupation of the country, Haiti was among the poorest nations in the Western Hemisphere. During the century of relative isolation that followed independence, the peasantry developed distinct traditions in cuisine, music, dance, dress, ritual, and religion.The late nineteenth century was a period of intense internecine warfare in which ragtag armies backed by urban politicians and conspiring Western businessmen repeatedly sacked Port-au-Prince. Some elements of African cultures survive, such as specific prayers, a few words, and dozens of spirit entities, but Haitian culture is distinct from African and other New World cultures. The only ethnic subdivision is that of the syrians , the early twentieth-century Levantine emigrants who have been absorbed into the commercial elite but often self-identify by their ancestral origins.Grands blancs (rich white colonists), petits blancs (small farmers and working-class whites), mulatres (mulattoes), and noirs (free blacks) fought, plotted, and intrigued.Each local interest group exploited its position at every opportunity to achieve its political and economic objectives.