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Use Reg Text to type the body of the abstract so that the first line of each paragraph is indented appropriately. Refer to the abstract example for instructions on what to include in the text.
(The examples above are taken from Form and Style (10th ed.), by Carole Slade; The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers (5th ed.); and the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.).) Note: The following are specifications for an abstract in APA style, used in the social sciences, such as psychology or anthropology.
If you are in another discipline, check with your professor about the format for the abstract.
According to Carole Slade, an abstract is “a concise summary of the entire paper.” Note: Your abstract should read like an overview of your paper, not a proposal for what you intended to study or accomplish.
Avoid beginning your sentences with phrases like, “This essay will examine...” or “In this research paper I will attempt to prove...” Good abstract: Begun in 1988, the human genome project intends to map the 23 chromosomes that provide the blueprint for the human species. The scientific goals underscore the advantages of the genome project, including identifying and curing diseases and enabling people to select the traits of their offspring, among other opportunities.
Because the abstract provides the highlights of the paper, you should draft your abstract after you have written a full draft of the paper.
Doing so, you can summarize what you’ve already written in the paper as you compose the abstract.
It should help your reader understand the paper and help people searching for this paper decide whether it suits their purposes prior to reading.
To write an abstract, finish your paper first, then type a summary that identifies the purpose, problem, methods, results, and conclusion of your work.
However, the expert’s performance may be disturbed by changes in their usual environment.
Try to avoid these common problems in IMRa D abstracts: 1.