When a patient says, “It hurts when I raise my right arm,” this is a key piece of evidence in framing the problem to be addressed and in diagnosing the ailment.
Other kinds of data, such as x-rays or brain imaging may also provide useful data, especially when combined with those self-reports.
Over the next 50 years, these two approaches dominated Europe and the United States, respectively, and the method of trained introspection was abandoned.
The behaviorist critique calls into question any research method that relies on people’s introspective self-reports of their perceptions, thoughts, or feelings.
The method of trained introspectionism ultimately became bogged down with reliability and validity issues, especially because training inherently colored the reports of introspecting subjects.
The approach was criticized by Gestalt theorists, who argued that the overall organization of thoughts is more important than individual elements, and by behaviorists, who argued that behavior, not thought, is the proper focus of scientific psychology.Consider, for example, introspective reports of pain.Doctors generally assume that self-reports of the nature, severity, and location of pain are highly informative, even if not totally accurate.The SPI approach is theoretical and reflective, as well as descriptive and analytical, in reporting the antecedents, actions, and outcomes in action‐oriented research. https://doi.org/10.1108/17465641111129362 Download as . Because the focus of the paper is subjective, personal, and introspective, it does not illustrate “findings” about multisector collaboration, but rather reflections and insights about the way the research was conducted. The researchers suggest that introspecting focused subjects on easy-to-communicate justifications for their choice that did not reflect their actual feelings, leading to choices they ultimately found unsatisfying.One common view is that people are ordinarily better at discerning their own attitudes than they are at introspecting the reasons for, or processes underlying, those attitudes.In one study, shoppers felt several nightgowns, reported which they preferred, and then described the reasons for their preference.In actuality, all the gowns were the same, though people tended to prefer the one on the right, due to a common serial position effect.And recently researchers have demonstrated that people sometimes hold implicit attitudes of which they are not even aware and which, therefore, cannot be assessed with common self-report measures.One view is that such attitudes reflect an elaborate adaptive subconscious that inherently colors all perceptions, communications, and actions.