Khan Academy Critical Thinking

Khan Academy Critical Thinking-29
In the next few videos, I'll talk a bit[br]more about each type of argument. An argument is a set of statements, called[br]its premises, that are meant to give you a reason to believe some further statement[br]called the argument's conclusion.In some arguments, the premises are meant[br]to guarantee that the conclusion is true.

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If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. And today I want to talk about necessary [br]and sufficient conditions.

If you're behind a web filter, please make sure that the domains *.and *.are unblocked. We hear the words "necessary" and [br]"sufficient" all the time.

Part of what this means is that its[br]impossible for the premises to be true while the conclusion is false.

When this is the case, we say that the[br]argument is valid.

And finally here is an example of a [br]necessary and sufficient condition: getting all of the answers correct on a [br]test is necessary for getting a perfect score[br]on the test, because you will not get a perfect score [br]on the test unless you get all the answers correct.

Getting all of the answers correct is also[br]a sufficient condition for getting[br]a perfect score, because getting all of the answers correct[br]is enough to get a perfect score.Here is an example of a necessary, but [br]not sufficient, condition.Steering well is a necessary condition[br]for driving well.Boiling potatoes in water is a sufficient[br]condition for cooking them, since it's true that boiling potatoes is [br]enough to cook them.However, boiling potatoes in water is not [br]a necessary condition for cooking them, since you can cook them in many other [br]ways: frying them, grilling them, baking them, [br]roasting them."Merely taking the test isn't sufficient [br]for passing it." "The lawyer convinced the jury that there is sufficient evidence to [br]convict the accused." "Pain is a necessary part of every human[br]life." "Practice is really necessary for [br]success." But what exactly do these words mean?If P is necessary for Q, then Q cannot be[br]true unless P is true.You could steer well but still drive badly[br]for other reasons.Here is an example of a sufficient but [br]not necessary condition.But not all deductive arguments are good,[br]and so there are several things to think about when deciding whether to believe the[br]conclusion of a deductive argument.A good deductive argument really does[br]guarantee its conclusion.

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