Marx Weber Capitalism Essay

They do this because such behavior provides a visible sign of one’s grace; confidently and constantly fulfilling one’s vocational duty to God marks you as one of the chosen.

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Hegel and Marx, though they differed strongly on the point of liberal society being the ultimate end for Universal History, agreed that humanity’s long road winds forever forward.

In Hegel’s dialectic, history climbs to higher ideas as thought systems in conflict iron out their contradictions.

For Marx, the same contradictions manifest not in ideas, but in material contradictions about the forces of production: from the fall of feudalism to the rise of the bourgeoisie and the onset of capitalism, all steps forward can be explained by a class struggle that is rooted in the material dynamics of production. Both thinkers thus elaborate triumphant, forward-facing ideologies Weber paints a bleaker picture.

History’s “increasing rationalism and secularism” leads him to the conclusion that humans are not even heading in the right direction (Fukuyama 1992).

This connection lies in the German word , an amalgam of what today we deem one’s vocation or profession or calling.

The word only appears in the Christian liturgy following the Protestant Reformation and proves difficult to translate because the idea itself has since become disaggregated.[1] (p 50).Puritans may have been the only ones that felt obliged to perform -style labor with such intensity centuries ago, but the work-imperative, the calling of productivity has now fallen on the heads of everyone in capitalist society.At last, Western capitalism has reached the point at which “man exists for the sake of business, instead of the reverse.”[4] A large volume of criticism leveled at Weber’s targeted his supposed causal relationship between the Protestant Reformation and the rise of capitalism.By selling as blessed the concepts of work and wealth as blessed, “ascetic Protestantism” – most specifically Calvinism, Pietism, Methodism, and Baptism – produces an environment amenable to the development of capitalism.According to Weber, this process occurs via the Calvinist concept of predestination, in which heaven is reserved for an elect and predetermined few (), and the rest of humanity is doomed to damnation.Attacks on his supposed causal model easily dismantle a much simpler argument than Weber sought to lay out.Weber set himself apart from Karl Marx and Georg W. Hegel by pointing to the role of thought-systems and their effects on human behavior as historical levers.Thus, it broke with contemporary ideologies and connected faith to labor.It spurred Puritans to work, articulating labor as a calling.Weber thus reduces explanations of historical trends to the micro level and argues for the significance of ideas in driving humans and humans in driving change.Weber’s second departure from Hegel, Marx, and more contemporary modernization theorists lies in his pessimism.

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