*There is no reason that this should end in early childhood. *

*There is no reason that this should end in early childhood. *

Word problems are described as "verbal descriptions of problem situations wherein one or more questions are raised the answer to which can be obtained by the application of mathematical operations to numerical data available in the problem statement" (Verschaffel, Greer, & De Corte, 2000).

Solving word problems involves: Solving word problems is not considered to be the same as mathematical modeling.

Instead, teachers can promote student reasoning by providing supports specific to each problem, such as encouraging students to explain their answer and why it makes sense, to draw a picture of their solution, or to consider a hypothetical but contrasting solution from another student. Math Spring Operational 2016 Grade 4 Released Items.

While these strategies can increase the number of students who reason with these problems correctly, in multiple studies they rarely produced correct answers for much more than 50 percent of students (see Chapter 3, Verschaffel, Greer, De Corte). Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers. Math Spring Operational 2016 Grade 5 Released Items. Zeitschrift Fur Mathematic-Didaktik, 4(2), 205–2017.

Most teachers believe or assume that students will have more difficulty solving a word problem than solving an algebraic equation that represents the same mathematics without the words.

Because of this, they believe in teaching word problems only after students master solving similar problems as equations. Pre-service teachers’ conceptions and beliefs about the role of real-world knowledge in mathematical modelling of school word problems. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(97)00008-X Verschaffel, L., De Corte, E., & Lasure, S. Realistic considerations in mathematical modeling of school arithmetic word problems. https://doi.org/10.1016/0959-4752(94)90002-7 Verschaffel, L., Greer, B., & De Corte, E.

Some (but not all) research findings suggest that "compulsion to calculate" worsens as students age and develop beliefs that math is a collection of rules (Radatz, 1983; Stern, 1992, both as cited in Verschaffel, Greer, & De Corte, 2000, p. Students can also struggle with word problems because they have difficulty with academic vocabulary, mathematical vocabulary, or both.

Due to these difficulties, English language learners and students of low socioeconomic status score lower on standardized assessment items than proficient speakers of English (Abedi & Lord, 2001).

Math teachers are often concerned about students' abilities to transfer classroom learning into the world beyond the classroom, but this "suspension of sense-making" shows that the reverse is also difficult – students struggle to apply their knowledge and understanding of the world back into a mathematics classroom.

Having been conditioned with years of arithmetic, almost always involving obvious operations and the expectation that each problem has a correct answer, students develop a "compulsion to calculate" (Stacey & Mac Gregor, 1999) that can interfere with the development of the algebraic thinking that is usually needed to solve word problems.

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