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The simplest way to cite sources is to use Parenthetical references or Parenthetical documentation.The author’s last name and page number(s) are placed in parentheses in the text to give credit to sources. If you cite another paragraph from the same work, or if the author or authors are clearly indicated in your text, common sense suggests that you only need to add page number(s) for the citation.Never lose sight of the real purpose for documenting sources, which is to communicate to the reader, in a standardized manner, the sources that you have used in sufficient detail to be identified and found.
In parenthesis, use no punctuation between the author's name and the page reference. Concentrate on scholarship published in the last thirty years or so.
For less well known reference books (such as Notable American Women below), give full information. If you can't, you probably don't understand the ideas well enough to use them and are better off not using them at all.
NOTE that this citation must appear as a separate entry in the Works Cited, if your narrative directly uses any material from Gilbert. he Norton Anthology of Literature by Women: The Tradition in English. For example, a collection of essays about , partly because the essays pre-date an enormous amount of critical work done on the Brontes in the 1970s and 1980s.
EXAMPLES: Taylor asks God to "Make me, O Lord, thy Spining Wheele compleate" (l. Our editors consider Taylor "colonial America's foremost poet" (Mc Quade et al. Not only is most scholarship of the 1960s and before somewhat dated by more recent findings and critical methods, it is also often biased by racist and sexist assumptions about literature and women.
Parenthetical documentation is a shorthand system for acknowledging sources of information. To quote a story from this edition, you would place the story title first: "The Story of an Hour." The Awakening and Selected Stories. Citing commentary by the editor(s) of a work Gilbert, Sandra M. Some scholars work largely from a Freudian psychoanalytic point of view, others from a Marxist point of view, still others from seemingly apolitical methodologies such as deconstruction.
Instead of using footnotes and bibliography, you use in-text citations and Works Cited/Works Consulted lists. "Introduction: The Second Coming of Aphrodite." The Awakening and Selected Stories. Feminist critics may work from within some, all, or none of these perspectives, and some very current critics may work from a consciously "non-feminist" perspective. "Morrison's Voices: Formal Education, the Work Ethic, and the Bible." American Literature 58 (1986): 217-37. Article in a scholarly journal that pages each issue separately (i.e., each issue begins with page1)--give volume, issue, and year. "The Sinister Oriental Thriller: Fiction and the Asian Scene." Journal of Popular Culture 19.2 (1985): 49-61. Article in a magazine (not a scholarly journal), give complete date (if weekly), otherwise month and year. Basic biographical information about a major author, such as dates of birth and death, would be considered common knowledge. You MUST document data, facts, or information that are not common knowledge.paragraphs, pages or screens that have been clearly numbered, it may be wise not to arbitrarily assign paragraph, page or screen numbers to your citations based on your printouts or screen views.Instead of adding a paragraph, page or screen number, it may be more practical to add a meaningful section or heading in your parenthetical reference, e.g. This may help your readers to easily locate the source of your citation regardless of what browser or font size they have chosen to use. EXAMPLE (documenting quotation of editor or critic): Reading Edna Pontellier through the myth of Aphrodite brings the novel out of the realm of realistic fiction, within which Flaubert operates, and into "a distinctively female fantasy of paradisal fulfillment" (Gilbert 27). The only exception to this is if the collected essays are all by a single author. EXAMPLE (documenting paraphrase of editor or critic): Sandra Gilbert's interpretation of Edna Pontellier evokes a positive image of rebirth in Edna's suicide through identifying her with the myth of Aphrodite (32).A screen of displayed text is not equivalent to a printed page from a book or a magazine.Unlike printed material where page numbers are clearly indicated, page and screen numbers on a Web page may vary considerably from one user to another depending on numerous variables such as the size of the monitor used, the user’s choice of font size and font type, setting of pixels, printing using portrait or horizontal/landscape format, choice of paper size, user’s option to suppress graphics or images, selection of number of lines per page, setting of top and bottom as well as left and right margins, the particular browser used as well as the version of the browser used, and other variables, may all have an impact on the outcome of the printout.For example, in your paper you write: In their Preface, the authors point out that “Learning Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is like learning any new language, computer or human” (Musciano and Kennedy xi). For example: Musciano and Kennedy suggest that we should avoid breaking tags across lines in our source document whenever possible to promote readability and reduce potential errors in HTML documents (41).In your Bibliography, or on your Works Cited page, you should list: Musciano, Chuck, and Bill Kennedy. If you are citing two or more articles by the same author, distinguish the articles by adding a date after the author’s last name, e.g. If you are quoting from a Web page, your citation for a parenthetical reference follows the same format as any regular citations for author, editor, title, etc. Where no page reference is available on a Web page, indicate the author’s last name, or the short title if no author is stated, without any page reference, e.g..