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According to Kim, Kumar & Kumar (2012), a successful TQM implementation itself is a business-level strategy that goes beyond process and should address the strategy content option of product design efficiency, product reliability, process efficiency and market advantage.Employee Management Employee management can be described as the extent to which employees in an organization partake in training and development programs that empowers employees to be proficient in operational procedures to optimize service and production processes (Mosadeghrad, 2014).Strengthening and building long-term cooperative relationship with suppliers is an important factor as it can increase the competitiveness of the organization competitiveness and thus, improving the performance of the organization (Mosadeghrad, 2015).
Furthermore, the leader of a firm is responsible for creating the appropriate environment/culture for innovation besides cultivating the innovation process, quality, finance management and aligning the current strategy with the innovation strategy in order to achieve innovative and competitive performance (Frolova et al., 2015).
Strategic Planning Strategic planning refers to the development and subsequent deployment of plans to forge a stronger tie with customers, suppliers and business partners (Baird, Hu & Reeve, 2011).
Additionally, synonyms of the TQM elements may cause redundancies (Delic, Radlovacki, Kamberovic, Maksimovic & Pecujlija, 2014) hence it is essential for similar elements to be combined into one category of elements for this study as shown in Table 1.
To boot, there are total eight heterogeneous TQM elements after similar elements are being combined into one category of elements which constitute of leadership, strategic planning, supplier’s quality management, process management, product and service design, employee management, customer relationship management as well as information and analysis.
In fact, due to the excessive supply of rooms as the number of Airbnb, budget hotels and guest-houses continued to increase significantly, it can be seen that hotels under the Malaysian Association of Hotels is either seeing stagnant or declining in terms of occupancy rates (Malaysia Tourism Statistics, 2016).
The way in which hotels gain a competitive edge falls into two main categories: Price based, by establishing a low-cost management through discounting; and quality based, by providing customers with a unique experience to achieve customer loyalty (Ooi, 2014).OMICS International organises 3000 Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700 Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System.Additionally, excessive hotel projects have saturated the market, with many more in the process of being constructed or about to be built, making the cutting-throat situation worst (The Star Online, 2017).The hotel market is pretty saturated at the moment and with more hotels opening, the demand for rooms is going to drop even further (The Metro News, 2017).Customer Relationship Management In this case, customer relationship management is defined as the continual and persistent effort in maintaining a close relationship with customers by acquiring constant feedback from customers to ensure customers’ needs and requirement are met (Elshaer et al., 2016).An organization should determine the current and future needs of customers and consider their needs as requirements for the whole organization (Yusr et al., 2014).It intends to accomplish the effectiveness of the system such as production, design, planning, quality tools, techniques involvement as well as customer satisfaction as it has potential not only to reinforce competitiveness but also to strengthen firm effectiveness and produce more satisfied customers (Khanam, Siddiqui & Talib, 2015).In order to ensure definition of TQM to be valid especially in hotel sectors which connects not only customers but also other stakeholders, it must encompass the meaning of conformance to internal specifications which are predetermined and required by customers (Ílkay & Aslan) and fulfil the continuously changing requirements of both the organization customer and stakeholders (Fotopoulos & Psomas, 2010).Product and Service Design Product and service design can be defined as an interrelated set of procedures and measures that are incorporated into the development process of an organization to achieve high quality performance (Karimi, Safari, Hashemi & Kalantar, 2014).Additionally, product and service design scrutinizes an organization’s quality product and service delivery performance in terms of timeliness, errors and costs of quality, responsiveness and customer satisfaction (Shan et al., 2013).