Thinking Critically With Psychological Science Answers

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Social science research on trial: Use of sex stereotyping research in Price Waterhouse v. There is no particular reason to examine such things except to acquire a better knowledge of how these processes occur. Applied research has been conducted to study, among many other things, the most effective methods for reducing depression, the types of advertising campaigns that serve to reduce drug and alcohol abuse, the key predictors of managerial success in business, and the indicators of effective government programs, such as Head Start.

For instance, biopsychologists study how nerves conduct impulses from the receptors in the skin to the brain, and cognitive psychologists investigate how different types of studying influence memory for pictures and words.

Rather than accepting the claim of a philosopher that people do (or do not) have free will, a psychologist would collect data to empirically test whether or not people are able to actively control their own behavior.

Rather than accepting a politician’s contention that creating (or abandoning) a new center for mental health will improve the lives of individuals in the inner city, a psychologist would empirically assess the effects of receiving mental health treatment on the quality of life of the recipients.

To really understand psychology, you must also understand how and why the research you are reading about was conducted and what the collected data mean.

Learning about the principles and practices of psychological research will allow you to critically read, interpret, and evaluate research.This is an extremely useful theory in human development because it can be applied to many different content areas and can be tested in many different ways. First, good theories are , meaning they provide the simplest possible account of those outcomes.The stage theory of cognitive development meets both of these requirements.Psychological research is used in a range of important areas, from public policy to driver safety. This basic AIDS or volunteering research is then applied to help change people’s attitudes and behaviors.It guides court rulings with respect to racism and sexism (Brown v. The results of psychological research are reported primarily in research articles published in scientific journals, and your instructor may require you to read some of these.The next step down from laws in the hierarchy of organizing principles is theory. One example of an important theory in psychology is the stage theory of cognitive development proposed by the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget.The theory states that children pass through a series of cognitive stages as they grow, each of which must be mastered in succession before movement to the next cognitive stage can occur.In this book there are many citations to original research articles, and I encourage you to read those reports when you find a topic interesting.Most of these papers are readily available online through your college or university library.This means that they do not have to rely only on the scientist’s own interpretation of the data; they may draw their own, potentially different, conclusions.Most new research is designed to —that is, to repeat, add to, or modify—previous research findings.


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